Over the last two decades, there has been increasing awareness regarding the potential impact of indoor air pollution on health. Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or oxygenated organic compounds formed from indoor chemistry has been suggested to contribute to adverse health effects. These studies use an in vitro monitoring system called VitroCell, to assess chemicals found in the indoor air environment. The structurally similar dicarbonyls diacetyl, 4-oxopentanal (4-OPA), glyoxal, glutaraldehyde, and methyl glyoxal were selected for use in this system. The VitroCell module was used to determine whether these dicarbonyls were capable of inducing inflammatory cytokine expression by exposed pulmonary epithelial cells (A549). Increases in the relative fold change in messenger RNA expression of the inflammatory mediators, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) were identified following exposure to diacetyl, 4-OPA, glyoxal, glutaraldehyde, and methyl glyoxal when compared to a clean air control. Consistent results were observed when the protein levels of these cytokines were analyzed. Exposure to 4-OPA significantly elevated IL-8, IL-6, GM-CSF, and TNF-a while glutaraldehyde caused significant elevations in IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-a. IL-6 and IL-8 were also significantly elevated after exposure to diacetyl, glyoxal, and methyl glyoxal. These studies suggest that exposure to structurally similar oxygenated reaction products may be contributing to some of the health effects associated with indoor environments and may provide an in vitro method for identification and characterization of these potential hazards.
Air-contamination; Air-monitoring; Air-quality; Air-quality-measurement; Air-quality-monitoring; Biochemical-tests; Biodynamics; Biological-effects; Biological-monitoring; Biostatistics; Cell-biology; Cell-metabolism; Cellular-reactions; Chemical-composition; Chemical-hypersensitivity; Chemical-properties; Chemical-reactions; Cytology; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-methods; Organic-vapors; Pulmonary-system; Risk-analysis; Risk-factors; Statistical-analysis; Toxic-effects; Toxic-materials; Work-environment; Workplace-studies;
Author Keywords: dicarbonyls; VOC; inflammatory cytokines; VitroCell; indoor air
Stacey E. Anderson, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1095 Willowdale Drive, Morgantown, WV 26505