Existing headforms are based on anthropometric data collected over 30 years ago. In 2003, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted an anthropometric survey of 3997 respirator users, of which 1013 subjects were scanned with a Cyberware 3-D Rapid Digitizer. The objective of this study was to create headforms representative of the current US workforce. Ten facial dimensions relevant to respirator fit were chosen for defining a principal component analysis model, which divides the user population into five face-size categories. Mean facial dimensions were then computed to target the ideal facial dimensions for each size category. Five scans in each category were chosen and averaged to construct a representative headform for each size category. Five digital 3-D headforms were developed: small, medium, large, long/narrow and short/wide. All dimensions are within 3 mm of the computed means for the sample population in each size category.
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