Biomarker analysis of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate exposure.
Gaines-LG; Fent-KW; Flack-SL; Thomasen-JM; Ball-LM; Whittaker-SG; Nylander French-LA
Toxicologist 2010 Mar; 114(1):397
Urinary 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) is used as a biomarker for systemic exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) in occupationally exposed workers but the quantitative relationships between dermal and inhalation exposure to HDI and urine HDA levels have not been established. We investigated the quantitative and time-dependent relationship between dermal and inhalation exposure to HDI and urine HDA levels in 48 automotive spray-painters. During each sampling visit, breathing-zone air samples were collected during each clear-coat paint task, and immediately after dermal tape-strip samples were collected. One urine sample was collected before start of work and multiple samples were collected during the workday from each worker. HDA level, creatinine concentration, and specific gravity were determined in each urine sample. HDA concentrations varied throughout the day and ranged from 0 to 65.92 mu g/l with a geometric mean and standard deviation of 0.10 +/- 6.68 mu g/l. Dermal and respirator-adjusted inhalation exposure were both significant predictors of urine HDA levels (p-values < or = 0.06). The results indicated biphasic elimination kinetics for HDA with a fast phase of 2.9 h. Creatinine concentration, (p<0.0001), weekday (p=0.056), and use of coveralls (p=0.12) were significant predictors of HDA levels. The use of coveralls (p=0.001), respirator type (p=0.005), smoker status (p=0.039), paint booth type (p=0.003), and worker's race (p=0.063) significantly affected HDA levels adjusted for creatinine concentration. In summary, urine HDA is significantly associated with systemic HDI exposure through both the skin and lungs and can be used as a biomarker to evaluate HDI exposure. The results also indicate the importance of both proper dermal and respiratory protection.
Airborne-particles; Biological-effects; Breathing; Breathing-zone; Chemical-hypersensitivity; Dermatitis; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-methods; Inhalants; Inhalation-studies; Lung-disorders; Lung-irritants; Particle-aerodynamics; Particulates; Personal-protection; Personal-protective-equipment; Protective-clothing; Protective-equipment; Protective-measures; Pulmonary-system; Quantitative-analysis; Respiratory-hypersensitivity; Respiratory-irritants; Skin; Skin-disorders; Skin-exposure; Skin-irritants; Skin-sensitivity; Statistical-analysis; Toxic-effects; Urine-chemistry
The Toxicologist. Society of Toxicology 49th Annual Meeting and ToxExpo, March 7-11, 2010, Salt Lake City, Utah
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina