Toxicity of lunar dust in lungs assessed by examining biomarkers in exposed mice.
Lam-C; James-JT; Zeidler-Erdely-PC; Castranova-V; Young-SH; Quan-C; Khan-Mayberry-N; Taylor-LA
Toxicologist 2010 Mar; 114(1):396
NASA plans to build an outpost on the Moon for prolonged human habitation and research. The lunar surface is covered by a layer of fine soil, of which the finest portion is highly reactive dust. Because the toxicity of lunar dust is not known, its toxicity in the lungs of exposed mice was investigated in the present study. Dust samples of respirable sizes were aerodynamically isolated from two lunar soil samples of different maturities (cosmic exposure ages) collected during the Apollo 16 mission. The lunar dust samples, titanium dioxide, or quartz (Min-U-Sil-5), suspended in normal saline, were given to groups of 5 mice (C-57 male) by intrapharyngeal aspiration at 1, 0.3, or 0.1 mg/mouse. The mice were euthanized 7 or 30 days later, and their lungs were lavaged to assess the presence of toxicity biomarkers in bronchioalveolar lavage fluids. The acellular fractions were assayed for total proteins, lactate dehydrogenase activities, and cytokines; the cellular portions were assessed for total cell counts and cell differentials. The overall results showed that lunar dust was more toxic than titanium dioxide, but less toxic than quartz. The two lunar dust samples showed similar toxicity.
Airborne-particles; Biochemistry; Biological-effects; Chemical-hypersensitivity; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-methods; Inhalation-studies; Laboratory-animals; Laboratory-testing; Particle-aerodynamics; Particulate-dust; Particulates; Inhalation-studies; Skin; Skin-disorders; Skin-exposure; Skin-irritants; Skin-sensitivity; Statistical-analysis; Toxic-effects
The Toxicologist. Society of Toxicology 49th Annual Meeting and ToxExpo, March 7-11, 2010, Salt Lake City, Utah