Pulmonary toxicity assessment of multiwall carbon nanotubes in vitro.
Mishra-A; Castranova-V; Rojanasakul-Y; Hall-J; Wang-L
Toxicologist 2010 Mar; 114(1):170
Multi Walled Carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are one of the most popular nanomaterials as reflected by their wide range of applications in electronics, material science and biomedical research. However, their fiber-like structure, low specific weight and nanoscale dimension also raises concerns about possible adverse effects on human health and the environment. In this study, physiologically relevant doses (0.06-0.2 microg/cm2) of MWCNT, which have been shown to cause pulmonary disorders in mice, were examined for their cellular toxicity and inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokine production in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells and alveolar epithelial A549 cells. MWCNT were dispersed in natural lung surfactants and exposed to the cells in culture. Cellular toxicity was assessed over time by direct cell counting and by WST proliferation assay. Inflammatory/fibrogenic TGF-alpha and MMP-9 production was determined by Western blot assay. The results showed that: 1) MWCNT can be effectively dispersed using natural lung surfactants, 2) Dispersed MWCNT caused a substantial decrease in cell viability and proliferation as compared to non-dispersed MWCNT or vehicle control treatment, 3) Dispersed MWCNT also induced TGF-alpha and MMP-9 upregulation in the lung epithelial cells, indicating their fibrogenicity and inflammation potential which is also supported by our in vivo studies. Thus, the in vitro methods may potentially be used as a predictive model for in vivo toxicity assessment and to aid the mechanistic studies of nanomaterial-induced pulmonary toxicities.
Biological-effects; Cell-biology; Cell-damage; Cell-function; Cellular-reactions; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-methods; Laboratory-animals; Laboratory-testing; Microbiology; Microscopic-analysis; Molecular-biology; Molecular-structure; Nanotechnology; Statistical-analysis; Toxic-effects
The Toxicologist. Society of Toxicology 49th Annual Meeting and ToxExpo, March 7-11, 2010, Salt Lake City, Utah