Pulmonary response, oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by carbon nanofibers.
Kisin-E; Murray-AR; Schwegler-Berry-D; Scabilloni-J; Mercer-RR; Chirila-M; Young-SH; Leonard-SS; Keohavong-P; Fadeel-B; Kagan-VE; Castranova-V; Shvedova-AA
Toxicologist 2010 Mar; 114(1):169
Carbon-based nanomaterials are considered to be one of the key elements in nanotechnology. Their structure gives an unusual combination of properties that are highly desirable for many industrial products. High aspect ratio makes them an attractive structural material, but their nanometer-scale diameter and needle-like shape have drawn comparisons with asbestos. It is known that inhaled asbestos fibers induce proliferation of connective tissue (fibrogenic response) and increase the risk of acquiring pulmonary carcinoma. We have previously reported that exposure to fibrous single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) caused a robust, acute inflammation with early onset of interstitial fibrosis, formation of granulomas, K-ras mutations found in mouse lungs and DNA damage observed in V79 cells. In the current study, we compared effects of carbon-based nanofibers (Pyrograf-III) with asbestos fibers (crocidolite) or SWCNT in vivo and in vitro. We found that in vitro exposure of RAW264.7 macrophages to nanofibers caused cytotoxicity and ROS production. Additionally, treatment of V79 cells with nanofibers caused adverse effects examined by two different genotoxicity assays (comet and micronucleus tests). Pulmonary exposure to nanofibers resulted in an augmentation of biomarkers of cell injury and oxidative stress, strong acute inflammation, as well as interstitial fibrosis and increased collagen deposition in mouse lungs. Mice exposed to an equal dose of nanofibers or asbestos induced less collagen deposition as compared to that seen after exposure to SWCNT. Our current results strongly indicate the need for further assessments on the health effects of nanofibers.
Biological-effects; Cell-biology; Cell-damage; Cell-function; Cellular-reactions; DNA-damage; Dust-exposure; Dust-particles; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-methods; Health-hazards; Inhalation-studies; Laboratory-animals; Laboratory-testing; Lung-irritants; Microbiology; Microscopic-analysis; Molecular-biology; Molecular-structure; Nanotechnology; Oxidation; Oxidative-processes; Oxygen-transport; Particulate-dust; Particulates; Pulmonary-cancer; Pulmonary-disorders; Pulmonary-system; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Respirable-dust; Respiratory-hypersensitivity; Respiratory-infections; Respiratory-irritants; Risk-analysis; Statistical-analysis; Toxic-effects
The Toxicologist. Society of Toxicology 49th Annual Meeting and ToxExpo, March 7-11, 2010, Salt Lake City, Utah
University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh