Luebke-RW; Beamer-CA; Bowman-C; DeWitt-J; Gowdy-K; Johnson-VJ; Shepherd-DM; Germolec-DR
General and Applied Toxicology, 3rd Edition, Volume 1. Ballantyne B, Marrs TC, Syversen TLM, eds., Chichester, West Sussex, U.K.: John Wiley & Sons, 2009 Dec; 1:64.1-64.23
For the purposes of risk assessment, immunotoxicity is defined as unintended modulation of immune function. Depending on dose, duration of exposure, mode of action and biopersistence, immune system effects may be detectable at the molecular or cellular level (altered markers of exposure) and/or at the organism level (altered function, adverse health effects). As depicted in Figure 1, suppression of immune function is associated with increased rates of infection and some types of cancer, whereas inappropriate modulation of the immune system may result in allergic and autoimmune responses.
Risk-factors; Risk-analysis; Immune-reaction; Immunology; Immunotoxins; Dose-response; Dosimetry
Book or book chapter
Ballantyne-B; Marrs-TC; Syversen-TLM
General and Applied Toxicology, Volume 2