Headspace sampling in GC.
Encyclopedia of Chromatography, 3rd Edition. Cazes J, ed., Boca Raton, FL: Taylor and Francis, 2009 Oct; 2:1050-1058
Headspace sampling is an important technique for the analysis of volatile compounds from a sample matrix that cannot readily be sampled by means of direct injection into a gas chromatograph (GC). Non-volatile liquid and solid samples can contaminate the injector of a GC; thus, there is the need for the indirect sampling technique of headspace analysis for volatile components existing within the sample matrix. Headspace sampling is a mature technique, spanning several decades, but new variations of the technique plus the extensive variety of commercial equipment available allow for its extensive use in solving many analytical problems encountered today. The three main techniques of headspace sampling are static, dynamic, and solid-solid-phase microexraction (SPME); they are described and a discussion of their advantages and limitations is included. Applications of headspace sampling are extensive; specific examples included in this discussion are the analysis of volatile compounds from complex biological matrices for toxicological studies, the detection of volatile biomarkers from chemical exposure, and the analysis for volatile impurities remaining in pharmaceutical compounds and products.
Gas-chromatography; Sampling; Sampling-methods; Gas-sampling; Analytical-methods;
Author Keywords: static headspace; dynamic headspace; solid-phase microextraction
Book or book chapter
Encyclopedia of Chromatography, 3rd Edition