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Dermal permeation of biocides and aromatic chemicals in three generic formulations of metalworking fluids.
Vijay-V; White-EM; Kaminski-MD-J; Riviere-JE; Baynes-RE
J Toxicol Environ Health, A 2009 Jul; 72(13):832-841
Metalworking fluids (MWF) are complex mixtures consisting of a variety of components and additives. A lack of scientific data exists regarding the dermal permeation of its components, particularly biocides. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dermal permeation of biocides and other aromatic chemicals in water and in three generic soluble oil, semi-synthetic, and synthetic MWF types in order to evaluate any differences in their permeation profiles. An in vitro flow-through diffusion cell study was performed to determine dermal permeation. An infinite dose of different groups of chemicals (6 biocides and 29 aromatic chemicals) was applied to porcine skin, with perfusate samples being collected over an 8-h period. Perfusate samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS), and permeability was calculated from the analysis of the permeated chemical concentration-time profile. In general, the permeation of chemicals was highest in aqueous solution, followed by synthetic, semi-synthetic, and soluble oil MWF. The absorption profiles of most of the chemicals including six biocides were statistically different among the synthetic and soluble oil MWF formulations, with reduced permeation occurring in oily formulations. Permeation of almost all chemicals was statistically different between aqueous and three MWF formulation types. Data from this study show that permeation of chemicals is higher in a generic synthetic MWF when compared to a soluble oil MWF. This indicates that a soluble oil MWF may be safer than a synthetic MWF in regard to dermal permeation of chemicals to allow for an increased potential of systemic toxicity. Therefore, one may conclude that a synthetic type of formulation has more potential to produce contact dermatitis and induce systemic toxicological effects. The dilution of these MWF formulations with water may increase dermal permeability of biocides, allowing for an enhanced risk for systemic toxicological effects and dermatitis potential.
Absorption-rates; Biochemical-analysis; Biochemistry; Biocides; Biological-effects; Biological-factors; Biological-monitoring; Cell-biology; Cell-metabolism; Cellular-function; Chemical-analysis; Chemical-hypersensitivity; Chemical-properties; Chemical-reactions; Chemical-synthesis; Chromatographic-analysis; Dermatitis; Environmental-exposure; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-methods; Health-hazards; In-vitro-studies; Laboratory-animals; Laboratory-testing; Metallic-fumes; Metallic-poisoning; Metal-refining; Metalworking; Metalworking-fluids; Metalworking-industry; Occupational-exposure; Organic-solvents; Quantitative-analysis; Risk-factors; Skin; Skin-absorption; Skin-exposure; Skin-exposure; Skin-irritants; Skin-sensitivity; Solvents; Spectrographic-analysis; Statistical-analysis; Surfactants; Toxic-effects; Toxic-materials; Toxic-vapors; Toxins
Ronald E. Baynes, Center for Chemical Toxicology Research and Pharmacokinetics (CCTRP), College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, 4700 Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, NC 27606-8401
Issue of Publication
Disease and Injury: Allergic and Irritant Dermatitis
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues
North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina