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Recovery efficiency and limit of detection of aerosolized bacillus anthracis Sterne from environmental surface samples.

Estill CF; Baron PA; Beard JK; Hein MJ; Larsen LD; Rose L; Schaefer FW; Noble-Wang J; Hodges L; Lindquist HDA; Deye GJ; Arduino MJ
Appl Environ Microbiol 2009 Jul; 75(13):4297-4306
After the 2001 anthrax incidents, surface sampling techniques for biological agents were found to be inadequately validated, especially at low surface loadings. We aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores within a chamber to achieve very low surface loading (ca. 3, 30, and 200 CFU per 100 cm(2)). Steel and carpet coupons seeded in the chamber were sampled with swab (103 cm(2)) or wipe or vacuum (929 cm(2)) surface sampling methods and analyzed at three laboratories. Agar settle plates (60 cm(2)) were the reference for determining recovery efficiency (RE). The minimum estimated surface concentrations to achieve a 95% response rate based on probit regression were 190, 15, and 44 CFU/100 cm(2) for sampling steel surfaces and 40, 9.2, and 28 CFU/100 cm(2) for sampling carpet surfaces with swab, wipe, and vacuum methods, respectively; however, these results should be cautiously interpreted because of high observed variability. Mean REs at the highest surface loading were 5.0%, 18%, and 3.7% on steel and 12%, 23%, and 4.7% on carpet for the swab, wipe, and vacuum methods, respectively. Precision (coefficient of variation) was poor at the lower surface concentrations but improved with increasing surface concentration. The best precision was obtained with wipe samples on carpet, achieving 38% at the highest surface concentration. The wipe sampling method detected B. anthracis at lower estimated surface concentrations and had higher RE and better precision than the other methods. These results may guide investigators to more meaningfully conduct environmental sampling, quantify contamination levels, and conduct risk assessment for humans.
Aerosol-particles; Aerosols; Airborne-particles; Air-monitoring; Air-quality-measurement; Analytical-processes; Biochemical-analysis; Biochemistry; Biodynamics; Biohazards; Biological-effects; Biological-monitoring; Biological-warfare-agents; Biophysics; Disinfectants; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-methods; Humans; Microorganisms; Qualitative-analysis; Risk-analysis; Risk-factors; Sampling-methods; Statistical-analysis; Surface-properties; Viral-diseases; Viral-infections
Cheryl F. Estill, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DSHEFS, MS R-14, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226
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Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Page last reviewed: August 26, 2022
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division