Laboratory evaluation of a field-portable sealed source x-ray fluorescence spectrometer for determination of metals in air filter samples.
Lawryk-NJ; Feng-HA; Chen-BT
J Occup Environ Hyg 2009 Jul; 6(7):433-445
5 Recent advances in field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP XRF) spectrometer technology have made it a potentially valuable screening tool for the industrial hygienist to estimate worker exposures to airborne metals. Although recent studies have shown that FP XRF technology may be better suited for qualitative or semiquantitative analysis of airborne lead in the workplace, these studies have not extensively addressed its ability to measure other elements. This study involved a laboratory-based evaluation of a representative model FP XRF spectrometer to measure elements commonly encountered in workplace settings that may be collected on air sample filter media, including chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc. The evaluation included assessments of (1) response intensity with respect to location on the probe window, (2) limits of detection for five different filter media, (3) limits of detection as a function of analysis time, and (4) bias, precision, and accuracy estimates. Teflon, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, and mixed cellulose ester filter media all had similarly low limits of detection for the set of elements examined. Limits of detection, bias, and precision generally improved with increasing analysis time. Bias, precision, and accuracy estimates generally improved with increasing element concentration. Accuracy estimates met the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health criterion for nearly all the element and concentration combinations. Based on these results, FP XRF spectrometry shows potential to be useful in the assessment of worker inhalation exposures to other metals in addition to lead.
Airborne-particles; Air-filters; Air-sampling-equipment; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-methods; Fumes; Inhalation-studies Laboratory-testing; Mathematical-models; Metal-dusts; Metal-fumes; Metalworking-industry; Models; Occupational-exposure; Occupational-respiratory-disease; Pulmonary-system-disorders Qualitative-analysis; Statistical-analysis; Welders-lung; Welding; Welding-industry; Workplace-studies;
Author Keywords: accuracy; bias; metalworking; precision; welding
Nicholas Lawryk, CDC/NIOSH, HELD, 1095 Willowdale Road, M/S G9002 Morgantown, WV 26505-1725
7439-92-1; 7440-47-3; 7440-50-8; 7439-89-6; 7439-96-5; 7440-02-0; 7440-66-6
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene