Biosocial synergy: stress, cardiovascular disease, and high risk populations.
Violanti-JM; Andrew-ME; Burchfiel-CM; Hartley-TA; McCanlies-E
Psychological factors and cardiovascular disorders. Sher l, ed., New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2009 Jan; :1-31
Our primary objective in this chapter was to review work regarding the association between stressors and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and examine scientific rationale behind this proposed link. Stress is a heuristic term often overused to describe many psychological anomalies. We attempt to narrow this definition of stress to one of biosocial synergy, encompassing various types of chronic and traumatic stressors, individual perception, and physiological responses. Given this conceptual basis, we describe relevant physiological pathways associated with stress and subsequent disease, focusing on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and cortisol. A further specific discussion of stress, trauma stress (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder), and CVD is provided. Lastly, we provide a discussion of the cardiovascular consequences of exposure to stressors in populations considered at high risk: caregivers, medical professionals, air traffic controllers, firefighters, and police officers.
Cardiovascular-system-disease; Cardiovascular-system-disorders; Cardiovascular-disease; Stress; Psychological-stress; Psychological-factors; Endocrine-system-disorders; Endocrine-function; Health-care-personnel; Medical-personnel; Air-traffic-controllers; Fire-fighters; Police-officers; Emergency-responders
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Psychological factors and cardiovascular disorders