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Planning a multilevel intervention to prevent hearing loss among farmworkers and managers: a systematic approach.
Fernandez-ME; Bartholomew-LK; Alterman-T
J Agric Saf Health 2009 Jan; 15(1):49-74
Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is the second most prevalent self-reported occupational illness or injury in the U.S., and agricultural workers experience high rates of hearing loss. This article uses Intervention Mapping (IM), a systematic approach to intervention development, to make recommendations for a program to improve hearing loss protection among farmworkers and managers. Final recommendations, based on previous work in the literature on hearing loss prevention, qualitative formative research, and theoretical considerations, include a specification of a multilevel theory- and evidence-based hearing protection program for farmworkers and farm managers. Twelve performance objectives (e.g., "monitor hearing and hearing loss with regular hearing testing") are specified and crossed with six relevant determinants (knowledge and behavioral capability; perceived exposure and susceptibility and noise annoyance; outcome expectations; barriers; social influence; skills and self-efficacy) to create a highly detailed matrix of change objectives for farmworkers and for their managers. These change objectives are then grouped into five categories: two for both farmworkers and their managers (noticing exposures, taking action) and three only for the latter (surveying and planning, implementation and evaluation, and communication). Theoretical methods and practical strategies, including program materials and activities, are then delineated.
Agricultural-workers; Farmers; Noise-induced-hearing-loss; Hearing-impairment; Hearing-disorders; Hearing-conservation; Hearing-loss; Behavior-patterns; Injury-prevention; Surveillance-programs; Author Keywords: Farmworkers; Health promotion; Hearing loss; Injury prevention; Intervention mapping; Noise; Occupational health; United States
Maria E. Fernandez, Center for Health Promotion and Prevention Research, 7000 Fannin, Suite 2558, Houston, TX 77030
Issue of Publication
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health