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4-Oxopentanal identified as a potential indoor air irritant and allergen.

Franko JL; Munson AE; Ham J; Jackson L; Wells R; Butterworth L; Anderson SE
Toxicologist 2009 Mar; 108(1):313
Over the last two decades, there has been an increasing awareness regarding the potential impact of indoor air pollution on human health. People working in an indoor environment often experience symptoms such as eye, nose and throat irritation, headache, and fatigue. Investigations into these complaints have ascribed the effects to volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted from building materials, cleaning formulations or other consumer products, and indoor chemistry. The dicarbonyl 4-Oxopentanal (4-OPA) is generated through the ozonolysis of squalene and several high volume production compounds that are commonly found indoors. Measureable levels of 4-OPA have been detected in simulated indoor air environments. 4-OPA was tested in a combined local lymph node assay (LLNA) and identified to be an irritant and extreme sensitizer with an EC3 value of 0.08%. Significant increases were observed in the B220+ and IgE+B220+ cell populations in the draining lymph nodes after exposure to 4-OPA concentrations of 6.25% and higher. Total serum IgE levels were also significantly elevated after exposure to 25% 4-OPA. These results suggest that 4-OPA may function as an IgE-mediated sensitizer. The identification of this compound as an irritant and sensitizer may help to explain some of the adverse health effects associated with indoor air exposure.
Air-quality-measurement; Air-sampling; Air-monitoring; Air-quality; Air-quality-monitoring; Biological-factors; Biological-monitoring; Biological-effects; Chemical-hypersensitivity; Exposure-methods; Health-hazards; Inhalation-studies; Indoor-environmental-quality; Occupational-exposure; Occupational-health; Organic-chemicals; Organic-compounds; Pulmonary-system; Respiratory-hypersensitivity; Respiratory-irritants; Work-environment; Workplace-studies
Publication Date
Document Type
Fiscal Year
Issue of Publication
NIOSH Division
Priority Area
Healthcare and Social Assistance; Services
Source Name
The Toxicologist. Society of Toxicology 48th Annual Meeting and ToxExpo, March 15-19, 2009, Baltimore, Maryland
Page last reviewed: May 11, 2023
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division