Dissolution and reactive oxygen species generation of inhaled cemented tungsten carbide particles in artificial human lung fluids.
Stefaniak-AB; Leonard-SS; Hoover-MD; Virji-MA; Day-GA
J Phys: Conf Ser, Inhaled Particles X 2009 Mar; 151(1):012045
Inhalation of both cobalt (Co) and tungsten carbide (WC) particles is associated with development of hard metal lung disease (HMD) via generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas Co alone is sufficient to cause asthma via solubilization and hapten formation. We characterized bulk and aerodynamically size-separated W, WC, Co, spray dryer (pre-sintered), and chamfer grinder (post-sintered) powders. ROS generation was measured in the murine RAW 264.7 cell line using electron spin resonance. When dose was normalized to surface area, hydroxyl radical generation was independent of particle size, which suggests that particle surface chemistry may be an important exposure factor. Chamfer grinder particles generated the highest levels of ROS, consistent with the hypothesis that intimate contact of metals is important for ROS generation. In artificial extracellular lung fluid, alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride (ABDC), added to prevent mold growth during experiments, did not influence dissolution of Co (44.0+/-5.2 vs. 48.3+/-6.4%); however, dissolution was higher (p<0.05) in the absence of phosphate (62.0+/-5.4 vs. 48.3+/-6.4%). In artificial macrophage phagolysosomal fluid, dissolution of Co (36.2+/-10.4%) does not appear to be influenced (p=0.30) by the absence of glycine (29.8+/-2.1%), phosphate (39.6+/-8.6%), or ABDC (44.0+/-10.5%). These results aid in assessing and understanding Co and W inhalation dosimetry.
Biohazards; Biological-effects; Biological-factors; Breathing; Chronic-exposure; Chemical-properties; Chemical-reactions; Health-hazards; Inhalation-studies; Lung-disorders; Particle-aerodynamics; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Risk-analysis; Surface-properties; Particle-aerodynamics; Particulate-dust; Particulate-sampling-methods
A Stefaniak, Division of Respiratory Disease Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control, 1095 Willowdale Road, Morgantown, WV 26505
Journal Article; Academic/Scholarly
Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Inhaled Particles X, 23-25 September 2008, Sheffield, UK