Immunotoxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate and the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha.
DeWitt-J; Shnyra-A; Badr-M; Loveless-S; Hoban-D; Frame-S; Cunard-R; Anderson-S; Meade-BJ; Peden-Adams-M; Luebke-R; Luster-M
Crit Rev Toxicol 2009 Jan; 39(1):76-94
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are environmentally widespread and persistent chemicals with multiple toxicities reported in experimental animals and humans. These compounds can trigger biological activity by activating the alpha isotype of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate gene expression; however, some biological effects may occur independently of the receptor. Activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) modulates lipid and glucose homeostasis, cell proliferation and differentiation, and inflammation. Reported immunomodulation in experimental animals exposed to PFOA and PFOS has included altered inflammatory responses, production of cytokines and other proteins, reduced lymphoid organ weights, and altered antibody synthesis. Mounting experimental animal evidence suggests PPAR alpha independence of some immune effects. This evidence originates primarily from studies with PPAR alpha knockout models exposed to PFOA that demonstrate hepatic peroxisome proliferation, reduced lymphoid organ weights, and altered antibody synthesis. As human PPAR alpha expression is significantly less than that of rodents, potential PPAR alpha independence indicates that future research must explore mechanisms of action of these compounds, including PPAR alpha-dependent and -independent pathways. This multiauthored review contains brief descriptions of current and recently published work exploring immunomodulation by PFOA and PFOS, as well as a short overview of other PPAR alpha ligands of therapeutic and environmental interest.
Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Chemical-properties; Physiological-disorders; Physiological-factors; Physiological-response; Biological-effects; Biological-function; Biological-systems; Immune-reaction; Immunology; Liver-function; Liver; Genetic-factors;
Author Keywords: Immunomodulation; Ligand-activated transcription factors; Perfluoroalkyl acids
Jamie C. DeWitt, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858
Healthcare and Social Assistance; Services
Critical Reviews in Toxicology
NC; SC; CA; WV; MO; DL