A solvatochromatic approach to quantifying formulation effects on dermal permeability.
Baynes-RE; Xia-XR; Vijay-V; Riviere-JE
SAR QSAR Environ Res 2008 Oct; 19(7-8):615-630
Dermal risk assessments are most often concerned with the occupational and environmental exposure to a single chemical and then determining solute permeability through in vitro or in vivo experimentation with various animal models and/or computational approaches. Oftentimes, the skin is exposed to more than one chemical that could potentially modulate dermal permeability of the chemical that could cause adverse health effects. The focus of this article is to demonstrate that these formulation effects on dermal permeability can occur with simple solvent formulations or complex industrial formulations and that these effects can be modeled within the context of a linear solvation energy relationship (LSER). This research demonstrated that formulation-specific strength coefficients (r p a b v) predicted (r(2) = 0.75-0.83) changes in the dermal permeability of phenolic compounds when formulated with commercial metal-working fluid (MWF) formulations or 50% ethanol. Further experimentation demonstrated that chemical-induced changes in skin permeability with 50% ethanol are strongly correlated (r(2) = 0.91) to similar changes in an inert membrane-coated fiber (MCF) array system consisting of three chemically diverse membranes. Changes in specific strength coefficients pertaining to changes in hydrogen donating ability (Deltab) and hydrophobicity (Deltav) across membrane systems were identified as important quantitative interactions associated with ethanol mixtures. This solvatochromatic approach along with the use of a MCF array system holds promise for predicting dermal permeability of complex chemical formulations in occupational exposures where performance additives can potentially modulate permeability of potential toxicants.
Solvents; Surfactants; Absorption-rates; Organic-solvents; Toxins; Toxic-effects; Quantitative-analysis; Biological-factors; Chemical-analysis; In-vitro-studies; Skin-exposure; Skin-irritants; Skin-sensitivity; Dermatitis; Laboratory-animals; Laboratory-testing; Health-hazards; Occupational-exposure; Environmental-exposure; Metalworking-fluids; Metalworking-industry; Statistical-analysis; Chemical-hypersensitivity; Chemical-properties; Chemical-synthesis
Ronald Baynes, Center for Chemical Toxicology Research and Pharmacokinetics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC
Disease and Injury: Allergic and Irritant Dermatitis; Work Environment and Workforce: Mixed Exposures
SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research
North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina