In September 2003, the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics published a report, Respirator Usage in Private Sector Firms, 2001, based on the Survey of Respirator Use and Practices. The survey gathers information on respirator use from 40,002 randomly selected U.S. establishments. Specific data collected include the types of respiratory protection used by workers at an establishment, types of respirator fit tests performed, and the presence of substances that prompted the decision to use respiratory protection. The survey findings raised questions regarding respirator usage practices and how these practices compare with the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) respiratory protection standard (29 CFR 1910.134) and NIOSH Respirator Selection Logic 2004 recommendations. This article focuses on information from the respirator use and practices survey collected from establishments in the electric, gas, and sanitary services industry ( U.S. Office of Management and Budget Standard Industrial Classification 49) which includes water supply, sewerage, and refuse systems. It is important to note that public-sector (federal, state, county, and city) facilities were not covered in the survey and had 20 million employees.