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Nanomaterial labels in electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays.
Talanta 2007 Dec; 74(3):308-317
This article reviews recent advances in nanomaterial labels in electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays. Various nanomaterial labels are discussed, including colloidal gold/silver, semiconductor nanoparticles, and markers loaded nanocarriers (carbon nanotubes, apoferritin, silica nanoparticles, and liposome beads). The enormous signal enhancement associated with the use of nanomaterial labels and with the formation of nanomaterial-antibody-antigen assemblies provides the basis for ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of disease-related protein biomarkers, biothreat agents, or infectious agents. In general, all endeavors cited here are geared to achieve one or more of the following goals: signal amplification by several orders of magnitude, lower detection limits, and detecting multiple targets.
Electrochemical-properties; Electrochemical-reactions; Electrochemistry; Particle-counters; Particulate-sampling-methods; Particulates; Immunochemistry; Immune-reaction; Biomarkers; Biological-agents; Biological-effects; Biological-factors; Biological-function; Biological-monitoring; Biological-systems; Nanotechnology; Author Keywords: Nanomaterials; Nanoparticles; Immunosensors; Immunoassays; Carbon Nanotubes; Biomarkers
Guodong Liu, Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105-5516
Issue of Publication
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories