For the purpose of dose reconstruction, personal dosimeter data and measured intakes through bioassay analysis (i.e., in-vivo and in-vitro measurements) should be used whenever possible and given precedence over area monitoring data, survey data, or source term data. However, this is not always possible. A worker's exposure record may be incomplete or missing, or, based on directives and guidelines at the time, a worker may not have been monitored during his or her time of employment. In an effort to recognize, analyze, and incorporate all possible considerations of potential exposures, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Radiation Dose Reconstruction Program developed "site profiles" for all of the major U.S. Department of Energy sites and Atomic Weapons Employer sites. Site profiles are technical documents that (1) provide a brief, general overview of the site; (2) identify the facilities on site with a brief description of the processes and radionuclides used in these processes; (3) contain detailed information on the historical detection limits for film, thermoluminescent dosimeter, and bioassay measurements that are used by the dose reconstructor to interpret a worker's available monitoring records; and (4) provide important supporting information for the dose reconstructor to use if the monitoring data are inadequate or unavailable. When a complete set of monitoring data for an individual is unavailable, it is the parameters in the site profile that are of the most use to the dose reconstructor. These parameters include facility monitoring data (by radionuclide, mechanism of intake, year of exposure, location within a facility); occupational medical x rays and techniques used; environmental measurements (by area on site, radiation type, energy range); minimum detectable activities of the types and kinds of instruments used to detect the different radionuclides; specific source terms (quantities of material and their molecular form) within each facility or process; and specifics of the overall dosimetry programs as they evolved over time. An additional benefit of having a site profile for a site is that it promotes consistency among the numerous health physicists that are working on the project. Resources used in the development of site profiles include technical basis documents for external and internal dosimetry programs, facility descriptions, environmental reports, safety analysis reports, input from past and present site workers, and other reports that have been written to describe the workplace environments within the facilities.
Nuclear-energy; Nuclear-hazards; Nuclear-properties; Radiation; Radiation-contamination; Radiation-effects; Radiation-exposure; Radiation-hazards; Radiation-injury; Radiation-properties; Radiation-sources; Occupational-exposure; Occupational-health; Immune-system; Cancer-rates; Dose-response; Environmental-contamination; Environmental-exposure; Radiation-contamination; Radiation-detection; Radiation-monitoring; Radiation-measurement;
Author Keywords: dose reconstruction; exposure, occupational; environmental assessment; nuclear workers
Judson L. Kenoyer, Dade Moeller & Associates Inc, 2750 Prosperity Ave,Suite 500, Fairfax, VA 2203