This national study evaluates the mortality of 10,400 members of the International Union of Bricklayers and Allied Craftsmen for the period 1986-1991. Age-, gender-, and race-specific proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) and proportionate cancer mortality ratios (PCMRs) were computed using the U.S. population for comparison. For deceased white males, significantly elevated mortality ratios (two sided Poisson, p=< .01) were observed for malignant neoplasm of the trachea, bronchus, and lung (PMR=1.37); emphysema (PMR=1.27); pneumoconiosis (PMR=1.17); and asbestosis (PMR=5.50). A similar pattern was observed for nonwhite males. Results support previous reports of an excess of respiratory cancer possibly due to cement dust, asbestos, and silica. Unlike for other construction trades, increased risk for deaths due to accidents and unintentional injuries (e.g. falls, motor vehicle accidents, electrocutions) were not observed. There were too few females for calculation of stable estimates (11=3). There are an estimated 188,823 brick masons and stone masons employed annually in the U.S. Data from the National Health Interview Survey (1987-1990) estimate smoking prevalence to be approximately 52% among these workers. Clearly smoking cessation programs and education regarding hazards are needed. Additional preventive action minimizing asbestos and other exposures is needed.