When Chilean artisans worked in the past, they used hand tools to artfully shape and cut stone. Today, craftsman working in small open-air settings with two to four workers use power tools for the same task. While efficient, these contemporary tools pose a major health risk by generating dust with high levels of airborne crystalline silica. When workers breathe in this dust, it can result in silicosis, a serious but preventable lung disease. Occupational exposures to respirable crystalline silica are also associated with lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis and airways diseases, and may be related to the development of autoimmune disorders, chronic renal disease, and other adverse health effects. Concerned about these threats, the Chilean National Institute for Public Health (ISP) invited three industrial hygienists from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to examine work conditions among the ornamental stone carvers in the small historical town of Pelequén, Chile.