Workshop report: chronic inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity testing of respirable fibrous particles.
Vu-V; Barrett-JC; Roycroft-J; Schuman-L; Dankovic-D; Baron-P; Martonen-T; Pepelko-W; Lai-D
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 1996 Dec; 24(3):202-212
On May 8-10, 1995, a workshop on chronic inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity testing of respirable fibrous particles was held in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. The workshop was sponsored by the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in collaboration with the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). The goal of the workshop was to obtain input from the scientific community on a number of issues related to fiber testing. Major issues for discussion were: (i) the optimal design and conduct of studies of the health effects of chronic inhalation exposure of animals to fibers; (ii) preliminary studies which would be useful guides in designing the chronic exposure study; (iii) mechanistic studies which would be important adjuncts to the chronic exposure study to enable better interpretation of study results and extrapolation of potential effects in exposed humans; and (iv) available screening tests which can be used to develop a minimum data set for (a) making decisions about the potential health hazard of the fibers and (b) prioritizing the need for further testing in a chronic inhalation study. After extensive discussion and debate of the workshop issues, the general consensus of the expert panel is that chronic inhalation studies of fibers in the rat are the most appropriate tests for predicting inhalation hazard and risk of fibers to humans. A number of guidances specific for the design and conduct of prechronic and chronic inhalation studies of fibers in rodents were recommended. For instance, it was recommended that along with other information (decrease in body weight, systemic toxicity, etc.), data should be obtained on lung burdens and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis to assist in establishing the chronic exposure levels. Lung burden data are also important for quantifying aspects of risk assessment related to dosimetric adjustments before extrapolation. Although mechanistic studies are not recommended as part of the standard chronic inhalation studies, the expert panel stressed the need for obtaining mechanistic information as far as possible during the course of subchronic or chronic inhalation studies. At present, no single assay and battery of short-term assays can predict the outcome of a chronic inhalation bioassay with respect to carcinogenic effects. Meanwhile, several short-termin vitroandin vivostudies that may be useful to assess the relative potential of fibrous substances to cause lung toxicity/carcinogenicity have been identified.
Inhalation-studies; Toxins; Toxic-effects; Toxic-materials; Fibrous-dusts; Particulate-dust; Particulates; Dust-inhalation; Dust-particles; Aerosol-particles; Laboratory-animals; Animal-studies; Dosimetry; Risk-analysis; Carcinogens; Lung-burden; Lung-disease; Respiratory-system-disorders; Pulmonary-system-disorders
D. Lai, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (7403), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology