Quantitative and qualitative comparison of spontaneous and chemical-induced specific-locus mutation in the ad-3 region of heterokaryon 12 of Neurospora crassa.
deSerres FJ; Malling HV; Brockman HE; Ong TM
Mutat Res 1997 Apr; 375(1):53-72
The data from forward-mutation experiments to obtain specific-locus mutations at two closely linked loci in the adenine-3 (ad-3) region of heterokaryon 12 (H-12) of Neurospora crassa have been tabulated to determine the relative frequencies and mutational spectra of ad-3 mutants occurring spontaneously and those induced by 22 different chemical treatments. Previous studies have demonstrated that specific-locus mutations at these two loci result from 5 major genotypic classes, namely two classes of gene/point mutations (ad-3AR and ad-3BR), and 3 classes of multilocus deletion mutations ([ad-3A]IR, [ad-3B]IR and [ad-3A ad-3B]IR). In addition, prior studies have demonstrated that some chemical mutagens induced ad-3 mutants exclusively, or almost exclusively, by gene/point mutation and other chemical mutagens by gene/point mutation and multilocus deletion mutation. In the latter cases, there was wide variation in the percentages of ad-3 mutants in these 5 major genotypic classes. Two comparative methods of analysis that also were used to compare spontaneous and chemical-induced ad-3 mutational spectra included 2-tests on the numbers of ad-3 mutants resulting in the following two sets of ratios: (1) gene/point mutations and multilocus deletion mutations; and (2) complementing and non-complementing ad-3BR mutants. Combination of the p-values from 2-tests for these two methods of comparison demonstrated that all 22 chemicals induce a spectrum of ad-3 mutants that is qualitatively different from that occurring spontaneously. In addition, these same two methods of comparison have been used to compare the mutagenic effects of each of the 22 chemical treatments with each other. Combination of the data from these two methods of comparison has demonstrated that 93.1% (215/231) of the pairwise combinations of these 22 chemicals were different from each other. The implication of these experimental data on the induction of specific-locus mutations in somatic cells of Neurospora for genetic risk assessment exercises is discussed.
Mutation; Gene-mutation; Genetic-factors; Genotoxic-effects; Mutagens; Cell-damage; Cell-biology; Cell-alteration; Cell-transformation; Cellular-reactions; Chemical-properties; Chemical-reactions
Frederick de Serres, Laboratory of Toxicology, Systems Toxicology Branch, Environmental Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, PO Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2233, USA