Pro-inflammatory cytokines and interleukin 6 in the renal response to bacterial endotoxin.
Kayama-F; Yoshida-T; Kodama-Y; Matsui-T; Matheson-JM; Luster-MI
Cytokine 1997 Sep; 9(9):688-695
Pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor (TNF-a), interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 are thought to play important roles in the pathophysiology of chronic kidney disorders, including glomerulonephritis. In particular, IL-6 has received considerable attention as it appears at high concentrations to promote the progression of renal disease while at lower levels may be involved in regulating repair mechanisms. As such, cytokine profiles have been examined in the kidney by either examining secretion from isolated kidney cells or quantitating plasma and urinary levels in experimental models of glomerulonephritis. To examine the cytokine responses within the kidney, without the contribution of other organ systems, we used semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and a recently developed kidney slice culture model from tissues of mice treated with combinations of endotoxin and neutralizing antibodies against TNF-a. The expression of IL-6, in addition to other pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, was increased by endotoxin treatment and reduced by pretreatment with neutralizing antibodies to TNF-a. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that IL-6 was expressed primarily in mesangial cells. Urinary IL-6 was also increased in endotoxin-treated mice and was inhibited by treatment with neutralizing TNF-a antibodies. Kinetics of the kidney-specific cytokine responses indicated that increase in TNF-a occurred initially, followed by IL-1ß and finally IL-6. Furthermore, addition of TNF-a to glomerular mesangial cells induces IL-6 secretion. Taken together, these studies indicate that, like in the liver, a cytokine response occurs in the kidney from bacterial endotoxin and that TNF-a acts as a primary cytokine capable of stimulating additional cytokines, including IL-6.
Tumors; Proteins; Bacteria; Endotoxins; Renal-toxicity; Kidney-toxins; Kidney-cells; Endocrine-system-disorders; Laboratory-animals; Animal-studies
Michael I. Luster, National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health, Health Effects Laboratory Division, Toxicology & Molecular Biology Branch, 1095 Willowdale Road, Mailstop 3014, Morgantown, WV 26505-2888