This guideline updates and replaces the previous edition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) "Guideline for Infection Control in Hospital Personnel," published in 1983. The revised guideline, designed to provide methods for reducing the transmission of infections from patients to healthcare personnel and from personnel to patients, also provides an overview of the evidence for recommendations considered prudent by consensus of the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee members. A working draft of this guideline was also reviewed by experts in infection control, occupational health, and infectious diseases; however, all recommendations contained in the guideline may not reflect the opinion of all reviewers. This document focuses on the epidemiology of and preventive strategies for infections known to be transmitted in healthcare settings and those for which there are adequate scientific data on which to base recommendations for prevention. The prevention strategies addressed in this document include immunizations for vaccine-preventable diseases, isolation precautions to prevent exposures to infectious agents, management of healthcare personnel exposure to infected persons, including postexposure prophylaxis, and work restrictions for exposed or infected healthcare personnel. In addition, because latex barriers are frequently used to protect personnel against transmission of infectious agents, this guideline addresses issues related to latex hypersensitivity and provides recommendations to prevent sensitization and reactions among healthcare personnel.