Study of toxin production by isolates of Stachybotrys chartarum and Memnoniella echinata isolated during a study of pulmonary hemosiderosis in infants.
Jarvis-BB; Sorenson-WG; Hintikka-EL; Nikulin-M; Zhou-YH; Jiang-J; Wang-SG; Hinkley-S; Etzel-RA; Dearborn-D
Appl Environ Microbiol 1998 Oct; 64(10):3620-3625
A cluster of cases of pulmonary hemosiderosis among infants was reported in Cleveland, Ohio, during 1993 and 1994. These unusual cases appeared only in infants ranging in age from 1 to 8 months and were characterized by pulmonary hemorrhage, which caused the babies to cough up blood. A case control study identified major home water damage (from plumbing leaks, roof leaks, or flooding) as a risk factor for development of pulmonary hemorrhage in these infants. Because of an interest in the possibility that trichothecene mycotoxins might be involved in this illness, a number of isolates of Stachybotrys chartarum were grown in the laboratory on rice, and extracts were prepared and analyzed both for cytotoxicity and for specific toxins. Two isolates of Memnoniella echinata, a fungus closely related to S. chartarum, were also included in these studies. S. chartarum isolates collected from the homes were shown to produce a number of highly toxic compounds, and the profiles of toxic compounds from M. echinata were similar; the most notable difference was the fact that the principal metabolites produced by M. echinata were griseofulvins.
Pulmonary-disorders; Pulmonary-function; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Children; Laboratories; Fungal-diseases; Fungal-infections; Fungi; Toxic-materials; Toxins; Metabolic-study; Metabolism
W. G. Sorenson, NIOSH/DRDS, 1095 Willowdale Road, Morgantown, WV 26505
Applied and Environmental Microbiology