Background. Laryngeal cancer is the second leading cancer among men in Turkey. A hospital based case-control study was conducted in Turkey to provide further information on occupational risk factors and laryngeal cancer. Methods. Among 7,631 cancer cases seen at an oncology treatment center of the Social Security Agency Hospital in Istanbul between 1979 - 84, 958 male larynx cancer cases were identified. Occupational history, tobacco and alcohol use, and demographic data were obtained from patients by a standardized questionnaire. Special seven-digit standard occupational and industrial codes were created to classify the job and industrial titles. To further evaluation, we also developed a job exposure matrix for occupational dusts including, asbestos, silica, cotton, grain, leather, and wood dusts, and for selected chemicals including, diesel exhaust, gasoline, PAH, formaldehyde, and solvents to analyze laryngeal cancer risks. After exclusions, 940 laryngeal cancer cases and 1519 controls were available for the study. We calculated age, smoking and alcohol adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to evaluate risks of laryngeal cancer by occupational exposures. Results. Excesses of laryngeal cancer occurred among guards (OR, 95%CI) (1.5, 1.1-2.1), production supervisors (1.8, 1.1-3.1), drivers (1.7, 1.1-2.4), textile (1.9, 1.2-3.3), and construction workers (1.7, 1.2- 2.6) and workers in grain mills (3.1, 1.3-7.6), trade unions (3.6, 1.1-11.7) and in local government (4.7, 1.7-12.5). Supraglottic cancer was excessive among textile workers, construction workers and local government labors, all occupations with significant potential exposure to dust. Risks among general managers, electricians, pharmaceutical production, industrial machinery production, and retail services workers were lower. We observed an excess of laryngeal cancer among workers exposed to silica (1.4, 1.1-1.8), cotton dust (1.6, 1.1-2.5), diesel exhaust (1.5, 1.3-1.9), gasoline (1.6, 1.3-2.0), and PAH (1.3, 1.1-1.6), and there was a significant dose-response relationship with supraglottic cancers (p<0.00l). We did not find any relationship between laryngeal cancer and asbestos, grain, leather, wood dust, formaldehyde, and solvent exposures. Conclusion. Risk of laryngeal cancer was associated with several occupations and supraglottic larynx cancer appears to be more common among workers. Laryngeal cancer, especially supraglottic tumors, was associated with silica, cotton dust, diesel exhaust, gasoline, and PAH exposure in Turkey.