Development of an improved strategy for the derivation of skin notations.
Dotson-G; Maier-A; Gadagbui-B; Geraci-CL
Toxicologist 2008 Mar; 102(1):202
Contact of the skin with chemical substances represents a significant route of exposure within workplace settings. The occupational safety and health community has relied on skin notations to identify and communicate the health hazards associated with dermal chemical exposures since the 1950s. These skin hazard designations have traditionally been used to indicate that a chemical has the potential to be absorbed through the skin and contribute substantially to systemic toxicity. Despite their importance as a risk management tool, several shortcomings have been identified with their continued use in their current form. The primary limitations are 1) the failure of the warnings to be assigned based on a standardized methodology, and 2) their inability to provide a warning for localized and sensitizing effects of chemical exposures. The National Institute for Occupational Safety Health (NIOSH) has developed a new strategy for the assignment of improved skin notations designed to address these issues. This process is a form of health hazard identification that provides the scientific rationale and framework for the derivation of multiple skin notations that clearly distinguish systemic, direct, and sensitizing effects caused by dermal exposures to chemical substances. This method relies on a critical evaluation of reports of human exposure and health effects, empirical data from animal toxicity studies, considerations based on mathematical models, and the application of a weight-of-evidence approach to assess the health risks associated with chemical contact with the skin. Issues encountered during the derivation of skin notations for 48 chemicals are presented. Special emphasis is placed on the application of the scientific rationale, the use of toxicological cut off values to determine systemic toxicity, and data quality.
Chemical-binding; Chemical-hypersensitivity; Chemical-properties; Chemical-reactions; Chemical-indicators; Chemoreceptors; Mathematical-models; Skin-absorption; Skin-disorders; Skin-exposure; Skin-irritants; Skin-sensitivity; Dermatology; Toxic-effects; Dermal-exposure; Dermal-absorption
The Toxicologist. Society of Toxicology 47th Annual Meeting and ToxExpo, March 16-20, 2008, Seattle, Washington