Effect of nicotine exposure on in vitro CYP450s-mediated metabolism of chlorpyrifos (CPF) in Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats.
Lee-S; Poet-TS; Busby-AL; Timchalk-C
Toxicologist 2008 Mar; 102(1):125
With the development of nanotechnology, there is a tremendous growth of the application of nanomaterials, which increases the risk of human exposure to these nanomaterials through inhalation, ingestion and dermal penetration. Among different types of nanoparticles, single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) with extremely small size (1 nm in diameter) exhibit extraordinary properties and offer possibilities to create materials with astounding features. Since the release of nanoparticles in an enclosed environment is of great concern, a study of possible genotoxic effects is important. Our previous data showed that pharyngeal aspiration of SWCNT elicited pulmonary effects in C57BL/6 mice that were characterized by a robust, acute inflammatory reaction with an early onset and resulting in progressive interstitial fibrogenic response, and the formation of granulomas. In the present study, the genotoxic potential of SWCNT was evaluated in vitro. The genotoxic effects of nanoparticles were examined using three different test systems: the comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test in a lung fibroblast (V79) cell line, and the Salmonella gene mutation assay in strains YG1024/YG1029. Cytotoxicity tests showed loss of viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner after exposure of cells to SWCNT. Results from the comet assay demonstrated the induction of DNA damage after only 3 hr incubation with 96 ug/cm2 of SWCNT. The MN test indicated some but not significant micronucleus induction by SWCNT in the V79 cell line at the highest concentrations tested. With two different strains of Salmonella typhimurium, no mutations were found following SWCNT exposure.
Cell-biology; Cell-transformation; Cellular-reactions; Cell-alteration; Pathogenicity; Pathogens; Pathomorphology; Molecular-biology; Molecular-structure; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Lung-fibrosis; Lung-irritants; Lung-disease; Lung-cells; Laboratory-animals; Genotoxic-effects; Genotoxicity; Particle-aerodynamics; Particulate-dust; Particulates; Fibrogenicity; Fibrous-dusts; Nanotechnology
Research Tools and Approaches: Exposure Assessment Methods
The Toxicologist. Society of Toxicology 47th Annual Meeting and ToxExpo, March 16-20, 2008, Seattle, Washington
Battelle Memorial Institute, Richland, Washington