Hazard assessment of first receivers in medical facilities responding to a toxic industrial chemical (TIC) or a chemical warfare agent (CWA) terrorism incident.
Stuempfle AK; Fischer BW; Ferguson CP; Ehrman S; Hutton M
Pittsburgh, PA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 2013 Jul; :1-266
The objective was to computationally estimate the potential hazardous vapor concentrations in hospital emergency departments (EDs) as the result of a terrorist attack. The purpose of these estimations is to support standards development by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for Non-Tight Fitting Powered Air-Purifying Respirators (PAPRs) worn by first receivers in the ED. Seven Toxic Industrial Chemicals (TICs) and two Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) were chosen as representative chemicals. Mathematical estimation models were developed for hazard analyses of a treatment room, central console room, and the space immediately surrounding a casualty in a "Representative Hospital." The models estimated the casualty's contamination upon ED arrival, the amount brought into the ED, and the peak vapor concentrations for different ventilation and airflow conditions. Numerous data gaps were uncovered and the values assigned to the data deficiencies affected the estimates. An approach was also proposed for assessing the potential hazards in the ED following a terrorist release of three Class "A" biological agents. The efficacy of a water deluge decontamination process was examined using a parametric approach. Numerous approximations were required and experimental data are needed for validation. The removal of contaminated clothing and 'effective' decontamination processes are critical in minimizing the ED's vapor hazard. An N95 mask does not protect against hazardous vapors.
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P.O. Box 18070
626 Cochrans Mill Road
Pittsburgh, PA 15236
Emergency-responders; Skin-exposure; Chemical-warfare-agents; Health-care-facilities; Health-care-personnel; Hazardous-materials;
Author Keywords: First Receivers; CWA; TIC; Hazard Analysis; Terrorism; Chemical Warfare Agent; Toxic Industrial Chemical; Hot-Zone; Warm-Zone; Vulnerability Assessment; WMD; Homeland Defense; First Responders; Emergency Department; Hospital Preparedness
Frank Palya Jr., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory, P.O. Box 1807, 626 Cochrans Mill Road, Pittsburgh, PA 15236
Final Contract Report
Hazard assessment of first receivers in medical facilities responding to a toxic industrial chemical (TIC) or a chemical warfare agent (CWA) terrorism incident
OptiMetrics, Inc., Abingdon, Maryland