Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in the Jackson Heart Study.
African Americans have higher reported hypertension prevalence and lower control rates than other ethnic groups in the United States. Hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control (outcomes) and potentially associated demographic, lifestyle, comorbidity, and health care access factors were examined in 5249 adult participants (3362 women and 1887 men) aged 21 to 94 years enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study. Hypertension prevalence (62.9%), awareness (87.3%), treatment (83.2%), and control (66.4%) were high. Control declined with advancing age; estimates for all of the outcomes were higher for women compared with men. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with prevalence and control. Smoking was negatively associated with awareness and treatment, particularly among men. Comorbidities (diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease), likely driven by the high rates of obesity, correlated with hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control. Lack of health insurance was marginally associated with poorer control, whereas use of preventive care was positively associated with prevalence, awareness, and treatment, particularly among men. In comparisons with the 1994-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data adjusted to Jackson Heart Study sex, age, and socioeconomic status distribution, control rates among Jackson Heart Study participants appeared to be higher than in their national counterparts and similar to that of whites. These results suggest that public health efforts to increase awareness and treatment among African Americans have been relatively effective. The Jackson Heart Study data indicate that better control rates can be achieved in this high-risk population.
Sharon B. Wyatt, School of Nursing, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State St, Jackson, MS 39216-4505