1. A comprehensive ecological survey was conducted from April 1997 to June 1999 on 4 turkey flocks (F1 to F4) to identify key pre-harvest sources/vectors of Salmonella colonisation. 2. Turkey caecal and crop content, litter, drinker, air, feed, feeder and environmental swab samples were collected. Conventional microbiological and serological procedures were used to isolate, identify, and confirm the presence or absence of Salmonella. 3. Salmonella was isolated from 13% of litter, 11% of turkey caeca, 10% of drinker, 5% of environmental swab, 3% of feed and 1% of feeder samples. Salmonellaheidelberg (65%), S. senftenberg (19%), S. muenster (10%), S. anatum (3%), and S. worthington (3%) were identified. 4. Identifying environmental sources associated with Salmonella colonisation and characterising serotypes would assist in designing pre-harvest controls for this poultry-borne pathogen. Integrators and poultry producers may be able to design hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) protocols to reduce the incidence of Salmonella arriving at the processing plant.