Based on the relationships between severity measure vs. productivity and other factors, this paper presents a comprehensive analysis of US underground coal mine injuries in 1996 by mine size. From the 1996 data, it was concluded that, generally, the larger the mine, the more productive it is (in tons per employee-hour) but the more severe is its injury experience (r = 0.65). However, within very large, large and medium mines, the more productive the mine, the less severe is its injury experience (r = -0.43, -0.36 and -0.26, respectively). For small and very small mines, a deeply nested analysis would be required to understand relationships. Other interesting relationships and comparisons are presented.