The response of cemented backfill to dynamic loads from field observations and split Hopkinson Pressure Bar tests.
Johnson-JC; Williams-T; Pierce-P
MINEFILL 2007: Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill, April 29 - May 2, 2007, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Montreal, Quebec, Canada: Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, 2007 Apr; :2490
Underhand mining with cemented mill tailings for backfill has proven to be a safe and effective alternative to contentional overhand mining for rockburst prone mines. The ability of the cemented sandfill to survive a rockburst shock wave without failing has been observed at mines in the Coeur d'Alene Mining District many times in the last twenty years. To better understand the dynamic loading of this commonly used support material the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) performed laboratory experiments using a split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) to quantify the maximum stress and energy absorption of cemented mill tailings from the Galena mine. Cylindrically shaped cemented backfill specimens aged 28 days were placed in the split Hopkinson pressure bar testing apparatus and a dynamic load was applied. The measured peak dynamic compressive strength of the cemented sandfill was 10.6 MPa (1540 psi) and is approximately twice the static unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of 5.5 MPa (800 psi). These test data showed about 95% of the initial energy was reflected away from the backfill and only 5% of the energy was absorbed. This may help to explain why backfilled stopes could withstand seismic events up to 3.5 Richter magnitude (M1). When a compressive rockburse wave impacts a stope a large amount of the stress and energy is reflected away. The reflected wave is a tensil wave which creates tensil cracks and spalling in the entire wall of the stope. The backfill suppots the damaged wall rock and holds it in place. Some of the stress and energy of the rockburst is transmitted into the backfill and because the backfill is being dynamically loaded it has a strength that is twice its static value and absorbs a substantial amount of rockburst energy. Although mining in deep underground mines is an extremely hazardous occupation, the use of underhand mining with cemented backfill for static and dynamis ground control increases the safety of the workers.
Mining-industry; Underground-mining; Safety-engineering; Models; Computer-models
MINEFILL 2007: Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill, April 29 - May 2, 2007, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.