Entrapment neuropathies: pathophysiology and pathogenesis.
J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2004 Feb; 14(1):71-75
A number of theories of pathogenesis of entrapment neuropathy, due to repeated loading, have been proposed and these theories are being actively explored with animal models. Tubes placed loosely around peripheral nerves cause delayed onset, chronic pain and changes in nerve morphology including nerve sprouting. Balloons placed around or adjacent to the nerve and inflated to low pressures, rapidly produce endoneurial edema and a persistent increase in intraneural pressure. The same models demonstrate long-term changes such as demyelination and fibrosis. The applied pressure causes a decrement in nerve function and abnormal morphology in a dose-dependent manner that appears to be linked to the amount of endoneurial edema. A new model involving involuntary, repetitive fingertip loading for 6 h per week for 4 weeks has caused slowing of nerve function at the wrist similar to that seen in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. These models have the potential to reveal the mechanisms of injury at the cellular and biochemical level and address questions about the relative importance of various biomechanical factors (e.g. peak force, mean force, force rate, duty cycle, etc.). In addition, these models will allow us to evaluate various prevention, treatment and rehabilitation protocols.
Laboratory-animals; Animals; Animal-studies; Muscles; Repetitive-work; Carpal-tunnel-syndrome; Neurological-system; Neuromotor-activity; Neuropathology; Neurotransmitters; Musculoskeletal-system-disorders; Biomechanical-modeling; Biomechanics
David M. Rempel, University of California, Ergonomics Program, 1301 South 46th Street. Building 163, Richmond, CA 94804
Disease and Injury: Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Upper Extremities
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
University of California - San Francisco