Oral and dermal toxicity of organophosphate pesticides in the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).
Henderson-JD; Yamamoto-JT; Fry-DM; Seiber-JN; Wilson-BW
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 1994 May; 52(5):633-640
Low levels of blood and brain cholinesterases (ChE) are widely accepted biomarkers of exposure to anticholinergic pesticides, especially organophosphate (OP) esters (Ludke et al., 1975; Fleming, 1981; Wilson et al., 1992). The relatively rapid recovery of ChE levels due to hydrolysis of OP pesticide-ChE complexes and synthesis of plasma ChEs often lead investigators to infer that the exposures were both acute and recent. During the course of studying exposures of raptors to dormant sprays in orchards (Hooper et al., 1989; Wilson et al., 1991; Fry et al., 1993; Seiber et al., 1993), we undertook research on pigeons (Columba livia) as surrogates for wild birds such as Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). This report presents oral and dermal toxicities of commonly used orchard sprays, ethyl parathion, diazinon and methidathion, to this readily available experimental animal.
Animals; Exposure-levels; Pesticides; Chemical-warfare-agents; Acute-exposure; Central-nervous-system-disorders; Brain-function; Organo-phosphorus-pesticides; Organo-phosphorus-compounds
J. D. Henderson, Department of Avian Sciences, University of California, Davis, 95616 California, USA
Cooperative Agreement; Agriculture
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
University of California - Davis