Toxicity of storm-water runoff after dormant spray application in a French prune orchard, Glenn County, California, USA: temporal patterns and the effect of ground covers.
Werner I; Zalom FG; Oliver MN; Deanovic LA; Kimball TS; Henderson JD; Wilson BW; Krueger W; Wallender WW
Environ Toxicol Chem 2004 Nov; 23(11):2719-2726
Organophosphorous (OP) insecticides, especially diazinon, have been detected routinely in surface waters of the Sacramento and San Joaquin River watersheds, coincident with rainfall events following their application to dormant orchards during the winter months. Preventive best management practices (BMP) aim at reducing off-site movement of pesticides into surface waters. Two proposed BMPs are: The use of more hydrophobic pyrethroid insecticides believed to adsorb strongly to organic matter and soil and the use of various types of ground cover vegetation to increase the soil's capacity for water infiltration. To measure the effectiveness of these BMPs, storm water runoff was collected in a California prune orchard (Glenn County, CA, USA) during several rainstorms in the winter of 2001, after the organophosphate diazinon and the pyrethroid esfenvalerate were applied to different orchard sections. We tested and compared acute toxicity of orchard runoff from diazinon- and esfenvalerate-sprayed sections to two species of fish (Pimephales promelas, Onchorhynchus mykiss) and three aquatic invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Simocephalus vetelus, Chironomus riparius), and determined the mitigating effect of three ground cover crops on toxicity and insecticide loading in diazinon-sprayed orchard rows. Runoff from the esfenvalerate-sprayed orchard section was less toxic to waterflea than runoff from the diazinon-sprayed section. However, runoff from the orchard section sprayed with esfenvalerate was highly toxic to fish larvae. Samples collected from both sections one month later were not toxic to fish, but remained highly toxic to invertebrates. The ground cover crops reduced total pesticide loading in runoff by approximately 50%. No differences were found between the types of vegetation used as ground covers.
Chemical-analysis; Chemical-warfare-agents; Diazo-compounds; Insecticides; Agricultural-chemicals; Agricultural-industry; Organo-phosphorus-compounds; Organo-phosphorus-pesticides; Pesticides; Pesticides-and-agricultural-chemicals; Hydrophobic-bonds; Crop-spraying; Toxic-effects; Toxins; Sampling; Water-analysis; Water-sampling
I, Werner: Aquatic Toxicology Program, Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Agriculture; Cooperative Agreement
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
University of California - Davis