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Clinical blood cholinesterase measurements for monitoring pesticide exposures.
Wilson-BW; Padilla-S; Sanborn-JR; Henderson-JD; Billitti-JE
Enzymes of Cholinesterase Family. Quinn DM, ed., New York: Plenum Press, 1995 Oct; :329-335
Measurement of blood cholinesterase (ChE) activity, especially acety1cholinesterases (AChE, EC 220.127.116.11) and butyrylcholinesterases (BChE, EC 18.104.22.168), is of worldwide interest and importance. They are one of the few biomarkers that function both as an indicator of exposure and also as evidence of an adverse effect. Determining blood ChEs is required for monitoring farm workers in the state of California in the United States. In addition, ChE determinations are used in emergency wards to diagnose exposure to anti-ChEs, as part of the submissions to regulatory agencies to set safe levels of pesticides, to monitor wildlife and their exposure to dangerous anti-ChE chemicals, and to provide evidence of the use or escape of nerve gases. Recently the reliability ofChE data submitted for regulatory and diagnostic purposes has been examined by the US and California Environmental Protection Agencies. Issues raised included variability of clinical laboratory results (Christenson et aI., 1994; Wilson et aI., 1992) and lack of validated and interlaboratory standard operating procedures. This paper reviews our recent experiences in examining the reliability ofthiocholine ester colorimetric assays, modified from the assay of Ellman et al. (1961), in the monitoring of blood ChEs from humans, domestic animals and wildlife.
Agricultural-chemicals; Agricultural-workers; Agriculture; Pesticides; Pesticides-and-agricultural-chemicals; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-limits; Blood-analysis; Blood-samples; Blood-tests; Acetylcholinesterase; Cholinesterase-inhibitors; Farmers; Diagnostic-tests; Diagnostic-techniques; Animal-studies; Animals
University of California Davis, California 95616
Enzymes of Cholinesterase Family
University of California - Davis
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