Estimating nanoparticle dose in humans: issues and challenges.
Nanotoxicology: Characterization, Dosing and Health Effects. Monteiro-Riviere NA, Tran CL, eds., New York: Informa Healthcare, 2007 Jul; :141-152
Dose estimation is an important element in evaluating the potential toxicity of nanoparticles and estimating the risk of exposure. The extent to which current models and methods accurately predict the internal dose of nanoparticles from occupational or environmental exposures is not fully understood. Compared to larger particles, inhaled nanoparticles may translocate within the body much more readily. They may enter previously unrecognized pathways (e.g. olfactory nerve transport to the brain) and retention sites in cells (e.g. mitochondria). Ingestion and dermal pathways are potential routes of exposure to nanoparticles but have had limited study. Studies to date suggest that the traditional focus on the lungs as the primary route of exposure and target organ of inhaled particles will need to be expanded to consider an the possible pathways and organs that may receive nanoparticle doses. New experimental methods for tracking and measuring nanoparticles dose in vivo provide potential tools for obtaining quantitative dose data that are essential for dosimetry model validation and refinement.
Dose-response; Toxic-dose; Toxicology; Risk-analysis; Statistical-analysis; Nanotechnology
Manufacturing; Transportation, Warehousing and Utilities
Nanotoxicology: Characterization, Dosing and Health Effects