Risk factors for systemic illnesses following agricultural exposures to restricted organophosphates in California, 1984-1988.
Weinbaum-Z; Schenker-MB; Gold-EB; Samuels-SJ; O'Malley-MA
Am J Ind Med 1997 May; 31(5):572-579
Organophosphate (OP)-related systemic illnesses reported to the Worker Health and Safety (WH&S) Branch, and restricted OP-related agricultural use data reported to the Information Services Branch at the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) (now CAL-EPA) during 1984-1988 were used to assess factors associated with OP-related systemic illnesses. Counts of OP-related systemic illnesses (numerator), relative to OP-related use data (denominator), such as pounds applied, number of applications, and acres treated (pounds applied/acres treated), were analyzed by crop treated, season of application, method of application, geographic region, and by specific OP applied. A Relative Illness/Use Ratio (RIUR) was calculated by Poisson regression. The highest risk of systemic illness was associated with OP applications to fleshy fruit (mainly fruit trees) compared to all other crops combined (RIUR = 2.9, 95%CI = 2.2-3.9) using pounds applied in the denominator, followed by vegetables and melons (RIUR = 1.9, 95%CI = 1.4-2.4). Air applications resulted in higher RIURs for systemic illness than did ground applications (RIUR = 2.1, 95%CI = 1.7-2.5). Specific OPs that showed significantly elevated RIURs for systemic illness when compared to other OPs were Mevinphos (RIUR = 5.8, 95%CI = 5.0-6.8). Demeton (RIUR = 4.3, 95%CI = 2.6-7.1). Oxydemeton-Methyl (RIUR = 3.8 95%CI = 3.0-4.9). Methamidophos (RIUR = 1.6, 95%CI = 1.2-2.0) and Azinphos-Methyl (RIUR = 1.3, 95%CI = 1.1-1.6).
Pesticides; Agriculture; Farmers; Risk-factors; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-limits; Chemical-reactions; Defoliants; Nerve-damage; Neurological-diseases; Neuropathy; Neurotoxicity; Pesticides-and-agricultural-chemicals; Organo-phosphorus-pesticides
Correspondence to Marc B. Schenker, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, TB-168, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8638
7786-34-7; 10265-92-6; 86-50-0
American Journal of Industrial Medicine
University of California - Davis