The effect of genetic polymorphisms in the vinyl chloride metabolic pathway on mutagenic risk.
Schindler J; Li Y; Marion MJ; Paroly A; Brandt-Rauf PW
J Hum Genet 2007 Mar; 52(5):448-455
Vinyl chloride (VC) is a human carcinogen known to undergo metabolism by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to reactive intermediates that can cause oncogene and tumor suppressor gene mutations and that are further metabolized by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) and glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) to non-mutagenic end products. These metabolic enzymes have known polymorphisms that could lead to increased levels of the VC reactive intermediates and thus an increased risk for mutations and cancer following exposure. Using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, we have examined a cohort of 597 French VC workers for polymorphisms in CYP2E1, ALDH2, GSTM1 and GSTT1 in relation to the occurrence of mutant oncogene and tumor suppressor gene biomarkers that are attributable to VC exposure. The presence of the biomarkers for mutant ras-p21 and mutant p53 was found to be highly significantly associated with cumulative VC exposure (P for trend <0.0001). The presence of the CYP2E1 variant c2 allele was found to be significantly associated with the presence of either or both mutant biomarkers even after controlling for potential confounders including cumulative VC exposure (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.2-4.1), and the effects of the c2 allele and VC exposure were approximately additive. GSTT1 null status was found to have an increased, but not significant association with the presence of either or both biomarkers after controlling for confounders (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 0.8-2.0). These results suggest the existence of a possible gene-environment interaction between polymorphisms in the VC metabolic pathway and VC exposure that could contribute to the variable susceptibility to the mutagenic effects of VC in exposed populations.
Biomarkers; Humans; Genes; Genetics; Mutation; Workers; Genetic-factors; Genetic-disorders; Occupational-exposure; Mutagenesis; Mutagenicity; Mutagens; Exposure-methods; Exposure-levels
Paul W. Brandt-Rauf, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 60 Haven Avenue, B-1, New York, NY 10032
Journal of Human Genetics
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York