The influence of velocity of stretch-shortening contractions on muscle performance during chronic exposure: age effects.
Cutlip-RG; Baker-BA; Geronilla-KB; Kashon-ML; Wu-JZ
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2007 Jun; 32(3):443-453
Aging increases injury susceptibility and impairs the ability to adapt to repetitive exposures of mechanical loading. The objective of this research was to investigate if movement velocity affects muscle response to a chronic administration of stretch-shortening cycles (SSCs) differently in young vs. old rats. Dorsiflexor muscles of old (30 months, n = 5) and young rats (12 weeks, n = 6) were exposed 3 times/week for 4.5 weeks to a protocol of 80 maximal SSCs per exposure in vivo. Skeletal muscle response was characterized by high- (500 degrees/s) and low- (60 degrees/s) velocity dynamic performance, which was evaluated using peak eccentric force, isometric pre-stretch force, eccentric force enhancement above the isometric pre-stretch force, negative work, and positive work. The performance of the young and old groups was not statistically different at the start of the exposure. By the end of the exposure, however, a statistical difference was noted-performance increased significantly in the young animals and decreased significantly in the old animals. The SSC velocity had a profound effect on muscle response. The young animals' high- and low-velocity performances increased during the chronic exposure period, whereas the old animals' performances declined. High-velocity performance increased more than low-velocity performance in young animals. In contrast, old animals suffered the most loss in high-velocity performance over the chronic exposure period. A chronic exposure of SSCs results in a significant performance increase in young animals, and a significant performance decrease in old animals. These differences are more profound during high-velocity movements. These findings suggest that age may impair the ability of skeletal muscle to adapt to repetitive mechanical loading, particularly during high-velocity movements.
Mathematical-models; Statistical-analysis; Age-factors; Animal-studies; Repetitive-work; Muscle-contraction; Muscle-physiology; Musculoskeletal-system
RG Cutlip, NIOSH, Health Effects Laboratory Division, Morgantown, WV 26506
Disease and Injury: Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Upper Extremities
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism