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Fatty acid, amino acid and trace mineral analysis of five weaning foods from Jos, Nigeria.

Fernandez DR; Vanderjagt DJ; Williams M; Huang Y; Chuang L; Millson M; Andrews R; Pastuszyn A; Glew RH
J Investig Med 2001 Feb; 51(Suppl-1):S142
Purpose: Weaning foods (WFs) are porridge-like foods used to supplement the diet of infants in the transition from breast-milk to an adult diet. In los, Nigeria, at tile Jos University Teaching Hospital, five WFs were developed to meet the nutritional needs of infants recovering from disease. Methods: Five plant-based WFs (Dietrend, Jot-M, Soy, Ang and Vic-T) prepared In Jos, Nigeria were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography, reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and atomic emission spectrometry to determine their fatty acid (FA), amino acid (AA) and trace mineral contents, respectively. Results of these direct analyses were compared to expected values derived from food tables prepared by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Additionally, results ware compared against breast milk as the standard for FA content recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for AA content and dietary reference intakes (DRI) for mineral content. Results: The overall nutritional value of the five WFs varied considerably and the quantities of particular nutrients determined by direct analysis differed markedly from those estimated using USDA food tables. In regard to FA composition, the five WFs had a much higher proportion of both linoleic and a-linolenic acids relative to human milk lipids. The Soy WF contained the most total FA (201 mg/g) compared to the four other WFs (72-131mg/g). Soy also provided the most protein (24.3 g/day) compared to the other WFs (11.9 to 7.26 g/day) and was the only WF to exceed the protein RDA for children up to one year of age (13-14 g/day). Comparison of the mineral contents of the WFs to the DRIs for various metals indicated that all WFs contained adequate levels of the nine minerals analyzed except calcium. Conclusion: These data show that the Soy WF is a good source of linoleic acid and a-linolenic acid, as well as being an excellent source of high quality protein and most minerals. These results also document the shortcomings of using published food composition tables based on foods in the United States when devising WFs based on ingredients in another part of the world.
Fatty-acids; Amino-acids; Food; Nutrition; Nutritional-disorders; Demographic-characteristics; Trace-substances; Trace-analysis
Publication Date
Document Type
Abstract; Conference/Symposia Proceedings
Fiscal Year
NIOSH Division
Source Name
Journal of Investigative Medicine
Page last reviewed: May 11, 2023
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division