Noninvasive method for the assessment of dermal uptake of pesticides using attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy.
Carden-A; Yost-MG; Fensk-RA
Appl Spectrosc 2005 Mar; 59(3):293-299
Dermal absorption of pesticides is a primary exposure route for agricultural workers, but is not well characterized. Current measurement techniques are either invasive, such as tape-stripping, or require extensive sample preparation or analysis time, such as urinary metabolite monitoring or wipe sampling followed by gas chromatography analysis. We present the application of a noninvasive, spectroscopic approach for the measurement of pesticide absorption into skin. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATRIR) was used to monitor directly the absorption of two pesticides--captan and azinphos-methyl--in ten volunteers over 20 min under occlusive conditions. We found substantial variability in absorption across subjects. Our results were comparable to those measured by the more traditional method of wipe-sampling followed by extraction and gas chromatography analysis. Multivariate data analysis, in the form of multivariate curve resolution (MCR), is a novel addition to this type of experiment, yielding time-resolved information unachievable by standard methods. These data are potentially more informative than the monitoring of blood or urinary metabolites because they can be acquired in essentially real-time, allowing observations of pesticide absorption on a rapid timescale rather than over hours or days
Skin-absorption; Skin-exposure; Skin-irritants; Skin-protection; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-limits; Urinalysis; Metabolic-disorders; Metabolic-study; Sampling; Gas-liquid-chromatography; Gas-sampling; Gas-chromatography; Analytical-processes
Angela Carden, University of Washington, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
University of Washington