The effect of sulfur content on diesel particulate matter (DPM) emissions was studied using a diesel generator (Generac Model SD080, rated at 80 kW) as the emission source to simulate nonroad diesel emissions. A load simulator was used to apply loads to the generator at 0, 25, 50, and 75 kW, respectively. Three diesel fuels containing 500, 2100, and 3700 ppm sulfur by weight were selected as generator fuels. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampling Method 5 "Determination of Particulate Matter Emissions from Stationary Sources" together with Method 1A "Sample and Velocity Traverses for Stationary Sources with Small Stacks or Ducts" was adopted as a reference method for measurement of the exhaust gas flow rate and DPM mass concentration. The effects of various parameters on DPM concentration have been studied, such as fuel sulfur contents, engine loads, and fuel usage rates. The increase of average DPM concentrations from 3.9 mg/Nm(3) (n cubic meter) at 0 kW to 36.8 mg/Nm(3) at 75 kW is strongly correlated with the increase of applied loads and sulfur content in the diesel fuel, whereas the fuel consumption rates are only a function of applied,loads. An empirical correlation for estimating DPM concentration is obtained when fuel sulfur content and engine loads are known for these types of generators: Y = Z(m)(alpha X + beta), where Y is the DPM concentration, mg/m(3), Z is the fuel sulfur content, ppm(w) (limited to 500-3700 ppm(w)), X is the applied load, kW, m is the constant, 0.407, alpha and beta are the numerical coefficients, 0.0118 +/- 0.0028 (95% confidence interval) and 0.4535 +/- 0.1288 (95% confidence interval), respectively.
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, P.O. Box 210071, Cincinnati, OH 45221, USA