Environmental and occupational medicine, 4th edition. Rom WN, Markowitz SB, eds. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006 Dec; :1277-1294
The term nonionizing radiation designates a wide spectrum of electromagnetic radiation frequencies, from to over 1015 Hz (Fig. 84.1). The characteristics of transfer to the body and, therefore, the potential effects of such exposure vary widely over this spectrum. Several types of nonionizing radiation have been the subject of considerable public attention and controversy in recent years. This chapter reviews the research literature concerning various types of nonionizing radiation to provide a perspective on the environmental and occupational exposures and the potential or perceived risks. Some of the main experimental findings are briefly summarized (although this literature is too extensive to describe comprehensively), after which the principal epidemiologic studies are reviewed, as these often drive public perception and risk estimates. Because this review provides little coverage of industrial hygiene, dosimetry, engineering, and basic biophysical aspects of these radiations, references are given to other sources that provide such information. The types of nonionizing radiation reviewed in this chapter include static and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF), and radiofrequency (RF) and microwave radiation.
Nonionizing-radiation; Microwave-radiation; Reproductive-effects; Teratogenesis; Hematopoietic-system; Endocrine-system-disorders; Neurological-system; Electromagnetic-radiation; Electromagnetic-energy; Electromagnetic-fields
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Environmental and occupational medicine, 4th edition