Biological monitoring of pesticide exposures among applicators and their children in Nicaragua.
Rodriguez T; Younglove L; Lu C; Funez A; Weppner S; Barr DB; Fenske RA
Int J Occup Environ Health 2006 Oct-Dec; 12(4):312-320
Exposures were assessed for seven small-scale farmers using chlorpyrifos on corn and ten banana plantation employees applying diazinon, and for one child of each worker. Metabolites (TCPYand IMPY) were measured in urine before and after applications. TCPY concentrations peaked at 27 and 8.5 hours post-application for applicators and children, respectively (geometric means, 26 and 3.0 microg/L). Proximity to spraying and spray mixture preparation in homes were important exposure factors. IMPY concentrations differed substantially across workers at two plantations (geometric means, 1.3 and 168 mirog/L); however, their children had little or no diazinon exposure. These workers and children were also exposed to chlorpyrifos, most likely through contact with chlorpyrifos-impregnated bags used in banana production. Several recommendations are offered: (1) monitor children's activities during applications; (2) do not store or prepare pesticides in homes; (3) institute sound occupational hygiene practices at banana plantations; (4) dispose of plastic insecticide bags properly at the worksite.
Farmers; Pesticides-and-agricultural-chemicals; Pesticide-residues; Chemical-hypersensitivity; Exposure-levels; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-methods; Agricultural-chemicals; Agricultural-industry; Agricultural-workers; Agriculture; Children; Urinalysis; Urine-chemistry
Richard Fenske, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, Box 357234, Health Sciences Building Room F-233, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195, U.S.A
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
University of Washington