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Sensitive biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): urinary 1-hydroxyprene glucuronide in relation to smoking and low ambient levels of exposure.
Hu-Y; Zhou-Z; Xue-X; Li-X; Fu-J; Cohen-B; Melikian-AA; Desai-M; Tang-MS; Huang-X; Roy-N; Sun-J; Nan-P; Qu-Q
Biomarkers 2006 Jul-Aug; 11(4):306-318
The study was conducted in a Chinese population with occupational or environmental exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A total of 106 subjects were recruited from coke-oven workers (workers), residents in a metropolitan area (residents) and suburban gardeners (gardeners). All subjects were monitored twice for their personal exposures to PAHs. The biological samples were collected for measurements of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and cotinine in urine. The geometric means of personal exposure levels of pyrene, benz(a)anthracene (BaA) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in workers were 1.470, 0.978 and 0.805 microg m-3, respectively. The corresponding levels in residents were 0.050, 0.034 and 0.025 microg m-3; and those in gardeners were 0.011, 0.020 and 0.008 microg m-3, respectively. The conjugate of 1-OHP with glucuronide (1-OHP-G) is the predominant form of pyrene metabolite in urine and it showed strong associations with exposures not only to pyrene, but also to BaA, BaP and total PAHs. Most importantly, a significant difference in 1-OHP-G was even detected between the subgroups with exposures to BaP at < 0.010 and > 0.010 but < 0.020 microg m-3, suggesting that 1-OHP-G is a good marker that can be used for the risk assessment of BaP exposure at levels currently encountered in ambient air. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses of 1-OHP-G on PAHs exposure indicated that cigarette smoke was a major confounding factor and should be considered and adjusted for while using 1-OHP to estimate PAHs exposure.
Biomarkers; Polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons; Smoking; Exposure-levels; Pollution; Pollutants; Environmental-exposure; Occupational-exposure; Humans; Pyrenes; Risk-analysis; Risk-factors; Exposure-assessment; Biological-monitoring; Biological-effects; Ultrasonic-testing; Urinalysis
56-55-3; 50-32-8; 129-00-0
Issue of Publication
New York University School of Medicine