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Nanoparticles: health effects - pros and cons.
Environ Health Perspect 2006 Dec; 114(12):1818-1825
With the advent of nanotechnology, the prospects for using engineered nanomaterials with diameters of < 100 nm in industrial applications, medical imaging, disease diagnoses, drug delivery, cancer treatment, gene therapy, and other areas have progressed rapidly. The potential for nanoparticles (NPs) in these areas is infinite, with novel new applications constantly being explored. The possible toxic health effects of these NPs associated with human exposure are unknown. Many fine particles generally considered "nuisance dusts" are likely to acquire unique surface properties when engineered to nanosize and may exhibit toxic biological effects. Consequently, the nuisance dust may be transported to distant sites and could induce adverse health effects. In addition the beneficial uses of NPs in drug delivery, cancer treatment, and gene therapy may cause unintentional human exposure. Because of our lack of knowledge about the health effects associated with NP exposure, we have an ethical duty to take precautionary measures regarding their use. In this review we highlight the possible toxic human health effects that can result from exposure to ultrafine particles (UFPs) generated by anthropogenic activities and their cardiopulmonary outcomes. The comparability of engineered NPs to UFPs suggests that the human health effects are likely to be similar. Therefore, it is prudent to elucidate their toxicologic effect to minimize occupational and environmental exposure. Highlighting the human health outcomes caused by UFPs is not intended to give a lesser importance to either the unprecedented technologic and industrial rewards of the nanotechnology or their beneficial human uses.
Environmental-health; Health-hazards; Toxins; Toxic-effects; Surface-properties; Biological-effects; Exposure-levels; Exposure-assessment; Nanotechnology
V. Vallyathan, NIOSH, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1095 Willowdale Rd., Morgantown, WV 26505 USA
Issue of Publication
Research Tools and Approaches: Cancer Research Methods
Environmental Health Perspectives
Page last reviewed: April 12, 2019
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division